Phage T4 is a large DNA virus that infects and multiplies in the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) and certain other bacteria that normally inhabit the mammalian gut. Relatives of T4 are widely distributed in nature and propagate in a variety of bacterial species in marine and terrestrial environments. The genomes of these phages encode an enormous biochemical complexity that rival the complexity exhibited by the much larger genomes of their bacterial hosts. Collectively, T4 and its relatives have proven to be powerful systems for research into the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that control the replication, expression and evolution of DNA genomes as well as viral assembly. This book contains a collection of review articles covering research in these areas over the last 20 years. The articles appeared online as a thematic series in 2010 in BioMed Central's Virology Journal. They are reprinted here in hardcopy as a convenient source of the most current reviewed information on this family of phages for instructors and trainees in the microbial and molecular biological sciences.
OECD Public Governance Reviews examine governance and public management issues from a comprehensive perspective, helping countries to identify how reforms can better reinforce each other in support of overall government objectives. They also examine reform strategies that have worked in other countries and provide advice as to which reforms can be appropriately adapted to a given country. Since the restoration of independence in 1991, Estonia has met the challenge of establishing a fully functional, stable, and modern state. This review looks at how, building on its significant accomplishments to date, the Estonian public administration can work together as a single government to improve and sustain service delivery to citizens and to meet new challenges on the horizon.
This study adds depth to John Wesley's intellectual development, his overall thinking, his biases and prejudices, his historical image, and his abilities and tendencies as the leader and sole authority of the 18th century evangelical religious organization known as Methodism.
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